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How stem cells are created from adult skin cells

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have the ability to turn into all cell types in the body. But, have you ever wondered how iPSCs are made in the lab? Let’s take a quick look at how we arrived here. What did we know before the discovery of iPSCs? For a long time, people believed the journey of the cell was unidirectional. Immature cells are initially totipotent and then progress through different stages. They move through pluripotency, multipotency, and end at unipotency (Figure 1). Scientists thought mature or specialized cells could not return to an immature state. Only embryonic stem cells (ESCs), a naturally pluripotent cell source, could develop into all cell types. < Figure 1: Cells transition through different cell...

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Bioprinting: A major advancement in regenerative medicine

Many advancements have been made in the field of regenerative medicine. One of these key advancements is 3D bioprinting. Bioprinting is defined as using viable cells and biomaterials or biological molecules to create 3D structures. Major organ shortages currently exist. It is crucial that scientists can find ways to meet these demands and close the gap. The importance of this discovery addresses the need for making organs and tissues available for use. How the Process Works The entire process of bioprinting tissues begins with imaging the damaged tissue area using X-ray, CT, and MRI scans. Next, the design and material/cell composition is determined, before bioprinting can take place. At the bioprinting stage, three main printers are currently being used: inkjet,...

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